To anyone iterested in natural processes,krkatau is the most fascinating areas in the world.the catalysmic eruption of 1883capture the imagination,and spectacular volcanic activity continous to the present.To those interested in Biology and the way island colonized by plants and animals.Not only the island which life was eradicted by the 1883 eruption,but also the new
island of Anak Krakatau the area hold unique attraction.The Krakatau volcano is a part of ujung Kulon National Park previously ,today its belongs to Lampung Povince.
The three outer island of the present Krakatau group [ Rakata,Sertung and Panjang ] are thougt to be the remmants of one previous.Huge Volcanic island called ” Ancient Krakarau “,it was some 11 km in diameter and 2 km high,according to history Javanese book of KIng it exploded and collaps,perhaps in pre hitoric time but possible as recently as 416 AD.Three island remained on the rim of it submerged,7 km diameter,central caldera [ collapse crater ].The southern mostof these ,Rkta grew by volcanic activity untill it was about 830 mt high and 5 km diameter.Two smaller volcanic island ,Danan [450 mt] and Perbuatan [120 mt],than develop in line to its North,within the ancient caldera ,the three islands later joined up in to one.Krakatau this about 9 km long and 5 km wide .There are record of seven eruption of Krkatau between the 9th and the 16th Century it was regarded as dormant.
THE 1883 EXPLOSSIVE ERUPTION
Volcanic activity recommende in May,1883,and continued into August.The first eruption appearing in the northern,perbuatan Volcano.The number of active vents increased on both the northern volcanos.On the 26th and 27th August a series of catalysmic explossion
occured which were heard as faraway as South Australia and Ceylon.The generated Tsunami [Tidal wave] that were registered even in English Channel.And which in Sunda Strait area were Devastating,and killing 36.000 people.The total volume of the material ejected by the eruption estimated at some 18-20 cubic kilometers.With an ash/dust cloud circling the Earth several times,causing”BLUE SUN and ORANGE MOON”.In UEROPE and NORTH AMERICA ,the amount of the sun energy reaching the EARTH was reduced,and in the year or two that followed.Annual average temperature sin the Northern hemisphere were lower than usual.In the aftermath of the explossion only about a third of Krakatau remained.The northern two-third including volcanos Perbuatan and Danan,and the northern half of the rakata Volcano were gone.In their place was collapsed crater 200 mt beneath the Sea.Covering an area of about 28 square kilometers.The remaining,Southern of Rakata was left as aproximate half-cone with an almost perpendicular cliff from the summit to the Sea.Providing a Natural,Geological section trough the Volcano.The other two islands,Sertung and Panjang were Enlarged considerably by the glowing ash and fumice which smoother the to a depth 30 mt.On Rakata The south and west coast were extended almost a kilometer Seaward and the ash layer riched a thickness of 60 mtin some areas.Altough probably much shallower on the steeper slopes.Week after the explosion rained water turn into steam as it trickled into crevices and even a month later the surface was to hot for bare feet.It is believed that all life,plants and animal was destroyed on the island,yet the three Islands are now covered in Forest,and over 200 species of higher plants and 36 species of land bird have been found in RAKATA island.
fourty years after explosion,in 1927,volcanic activity was seen in the Sea covering the old caldera.Between the site of two northern most of former volcano of the Krakatau,were the greatest activity had occured at the time of the catalysm.A series of eruption 185 m below the surface of the Sea resulted in the emergence of three new island,one after the other.They were all soon destroyed by surf. A fourt emerged from the Sea on August 12th 1930,it remained above water and was aptly named ANAK KRAKATAU [CHILD KRAKATAU].IT grew by the accumulation of ash,and suffered a devastating eruption in 1952,and another very destuctive one in 1972.It is now 300m and 2 km in diameter,and is still active.The northern coast,north foreland,and is foreland are now vegetated.The succesion of the vegetation is still at an early stage.CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA [CEMARA] being the dominant tree.